It’s a model to describe large signal behaviour of a transistor, and start with the simple notion of two back to back diodes. For example the diodes seen at the two . It can be shown that (see S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices), therefore . where. More Complete Ebers-Moll Model. Model includes configurational. Ideal transistor model. Forward active mode of operation General bias modes of a bipolar transistor The Ebers-Moll model Saturation.

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This relation ship is also referred as the reciprocity relation and can be derived by examining the minority carrier current through the base. Instead, they drift through the base-collector depletion region and end up as majority carriers in the collector region. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details.

This effect can be used to amplify the input voltage or current. Calculate the saturation voltage of a bipolar transistor biased with a base current of 1 koll and a collector current of 10 mA.

The Bipolar Transistor (Ebers Moll Model)

The result is that the transistor makes a good switch that is controlled by its base input. Saturation is therefore avoided in high-speed bipolar logic circuits.

The emitter is heavily doped, while the collector is lightly doped, allowing a large reverse eberw voltage to be applied before the collector—base junction breaks down. Semiconductor Device Physics and Simulation. The diagram shows a schematic representation of an NPN transistor connected to two voltage sources.

Most transistors, however, have poor emitter efficiency under reverse active bias since the collector doping density is typically much less than the base doping density to ensure high base-collector breakdown voltages.


The model can be quite accurate for low-frequency circuits and can easily be adapted for higher-frequency circuits with the addition of appropriate inter-electrode capacitances and other parasitic elements.

In the discussion below, focus is on the NPN bipolar transistor. Capacitor types Ceramic resonator Crystal oscillator Inductor Parametron Relay reed relay mercury switch.

The arrow on the symbol for bipolar transistors indicates the PN junction between base and emitter and points in the direction conventional current travels. Silicon bandgap temperature sensor. The modes of operation can be described in terms of the applied voltages this description applies to NPN transistors; polarities are reversed for PNP transistors:. Hashed regions mmodel depleted regions.

Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistors

The model contains two diodes and two current sources as shown in Figure 5. Finally, there is the reverse active mode of operation.

The base transport factor, as defined in equation 5. It is less than unity due to recombination of charge carriers as they cross the base region.

Two techniques are used to reduce the turn-off delay: Consider a pnp bipolar transistor with emitter doping of 10 18 cm -3 and base doping mooll 10 17 cm In contrast, unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistorsonly use one kind of charge carrier.

The use of the ideal p-n diode model implies that no recombination within the depletion regions is taken into account. An NPN transistor comprises two semiconductor junctions that share a thin p-doped region, and a PNP transistor comprises two semiconductor junctions that share a thin n-doped region. For the specific case where the base-emitter and base-collector voltage are the same and the base doping is uniform, there can be no minority carrier diffusion in the base so that:.

This and other similar relations will moddl used to construct the charge control model of the bipolar junction transistor in section 5. As well, as the base is lightly doped in comparison to the emitter and collector regionsrecombination rates are low, permitting more carriers to diffuse across the base region.


The ideal transistor model is based on the ideal p-n diode model and provides a first-order calculation of the dc parameters of a bipolar junction transistor. Assume there is no recombination in the depletion region.

For example, in the typical grounded-emitter configuration of an NPN BJT used as a pulldown switch in digital logic, the “off” state never involves a reverse-biased junction because the base voltage never goes below ground; nevertheless the forward bias is close enough to zero that essentially no current flows, so this end of the forward active region can be regarded as the cutoff region.

You can help by adding to it. For a diode with voltage V applied between its terminals, the current flowing through the junction in terms of applied voltage between its terminals is given by.

Ebers Moll Model

The lack of symmetry is primarily due to the doping ratios of mol emitter and the collector. The low-performance “lateral” bipolar transistors sometimes used in CMOS processes are sometimes designed symmetrically, that is, with no difference between forward and backward operation. For the CE topology, an approximate h-parameter model is commonly used which further simplifies the circuit analysis.

It is typically greater than 50 for small-signal transistors, but can be smaller in transistors designed for high-power applications.